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The P values (one-tailed) from the paired t-tests for all three variables indicate that each null hypothesis should be rejected and that there is a signiﬁcant increase in body measurements between the two time periods purchase 25 mg aldactone free shipping hypertension nos. As with any statistical test order genuine aldactone on-line hypertension pulmonary, it is important to decide whether the size of mean difference Paired and one-sample t-tests 97 Table 4 cheap 100 mg aldactone visa blood pressure doctor. These effect sizes are very large but are expected in babies studied in a critical growth period. The means and standard deviations are reported to two decimal places, which is one more decimal place above the number that the original measure- ments were taken in. This test is used when lack of normality in the differences of the scores is a concern, that is when the differences did not come from a normally distributed population, or when the sample size is small. The Wilcoxon signed rank test is used to test the null hypothesis that the median of the differences between pairs of observations is equal to zero. The assumptions of the Wilcoxon signed rank test are (i) that the paired differences are independent and (ii) the differences come from a distribution in which the differences between paired measurements are symmetrically distributed around the median value. For this test, the number of outliers should not be large relative to the sample size. Then the ranks where there is a positive difference between the two observations are summed. Similarly, the ranks where there is a negative difference between the two observations are summed. Difference scores that are equal to zero, indicating no difference between pairs, are excluded from the analysis. The smaller of the two summed totals is the test statistic, which is used to determine whether the null hypothesis should be rejected. This test is not suitable when a large proportion of paired differences are equal to zero because this effectively reduces the sample size. Decision The median of differences Related- Reject the 1 between Head circumference Samples null at 1 mo (cm) and Head Wilcoxon. Non-parametric tests The P value that is displayed in the Hypothesis Test Summary table is computed based on the ranks of the absolute values of the differences between 1 month and 3 months. By double clicking on the Hypothesis Test Summary table, the Model Viewer window is opened and the following information is obtained (see page 99). The histogram displays the size of the rank difference between pairs of observation and the frequency of the difference. The difference is calculated as the head circumfer- ence scores at 3 months minus the head circumference scores at 1 month, as shown underneath the histogram. The number of negative ranks where the head circumfer- ence at 3 months is lower than that at 1 month is reported as negative differences in the histogram. The number of positive ranks where head circumference at 3 months is higher than that at 1 month of age is reported as positive differences. The zero ranks, that is, no difference between observations is not reported in the histogram. As the leg- end next to the bar chart indicates no babies have a negative rank, that is, a lower head circumference at 3 months than at 1 month of age, as expected. The legend also shows that there are no ties, that is, no babies with the same difference scores.
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It is highly questionable whether the author of On the Sacred Disease can be credited with the identiﬁcation of the divine with ‘rational’ or ‘knowable’: the only explicit statement which might support this association is his criticism of the idea that what is divine cannot be known or understood (1 purchase aldactone line blood pressure variation during the day. Nor does the association of theios with the ‘laws’ of Nature have any textual basis (on the difference between the nature of the disease and Nature in general see below order aldactone online now arrhythmia vs fibrillation, pp 25 mg aldactone fast delivery blood pressure 8860. On the Sacred Disease 59 M),36 which has taÅth instead of taÓta, and to take the diseases as the subject of st©: ‘in this way (or, in this respect) they are divine’ (taÅth d’ stª qe±a). On this reading, ‘in this way’ refers to their being caused by the causes (profsiev) just mentioned. Strictly speaking, this is syntactically awkward, as in the preceding sentence the word noÓsov (‘disease’) is used, which would demand a plural verb form (e«s©); but st© might be defended by understanding t nosmata (‘the diseases’) as its subject, the word n»shma being used in the immediately following dependent clause. Even if, as a consequence of this interpretation, the enumeration of causes in 18. We could suppose, as I have suggested above, that a distinction between aitios and prophasis is implicitly present here: for it is true that, for instance, chapters 13–16 explain how the winds affect the brain and so cause diseases, and the author’s claim that the brain is aitios leaves open various possibilities for the account of the prophasies. But then the question remains why it is only these prophasies which are mentioned here in chapter 18, for it seems very improbable that they are more important as constitutive elements of the nature of the disease than the cause of the disease, the brain. Perhaps the point of mentioning them here is that they are the prophasies of all diseases, and that by showing this the author only strives to put epilepsy on an equal level with the other diseases. If this is correct, the reason for not mentioning the brain and other internal factors is not that they are not constitutive of the divine character of the disease (for on this interpretation they are) but that they do not play a part in all other diseases (3. Another possibility is to say that the divinity of the disease resides in the regular pattern of the process of its origin and 36 See Grensemann (1968c) 31–9; Jones in Jones and Withington (1923–31) vol. However, it is hard to believe that, on the reading taÓta, we should take this as referring to these nosmata, since in the intermediate sentence (18. Alternatively, one might perhaps even consider reading taÅth d’ stª qe©h and understand aÌth ¡ noÓsov as the subject (‘in this respect the disease is divine’). But this makes t¼ n»shma difﬁcult to account for, and it is, of course, not just choosing between two variant readings but emending the text as well. It turns out that neither of the two interpretations is completely free from difﬁculties. Yet it seems that the problems involved in the ﬁrst are more numerous and compelling than those inherent to the second; moreover, the second is closer to the wording of the text. Therefore, it is preferable to conclude that according to the author of On the Sacred Disease diseases are divine in virtue of having a nature, and that the supposedly divine status of their prophasies has nothing to do with it. But in any case, as far as the question of the ‘theology’ of the treatise is concerned, it sufﬁces to say that on both views the divine character of the disease is based upon natural factors. These reconstructions have resulted in a conception in which ‘the divine’ (to theion) is regarded as an immanent natural principle or natural ‘law’ governing all natural processes and constituting the imperishable order within the ever ﬂowing natural phenomena. It is sometimes stated that this ‘divine’ is identiﬁed with nature and that to theion is equal to he phusis¯ or to kata phusin. For the practical interest of the physician this conception has two important implications. First, diseases are no longer regarded as concrete effects of deliberate divine dispensation or as god- sent pollutions; second, for the treatment of the disease an appeal to the healing power of the gods (as made in temple medicine) is unnecessary or even useless, since the cure of the disease can be accomplished by ordinary natural means. Both implications seem to obtain for the writer of On the Sacred Disease, for he explicitly denies the diseases are god-sent in the traditional sense (1. In this way his positive theological statements might be viewed as providing the general philosophical framework on which his aetiological and therapeutic views are based. On the Sacred Disease 61 However, this extrapolation of a ‘theology’ from the statements about the divine character of the disease presupposes three generalisations which are in themselves questionable, and which appear to be inconsistent with other assertions in the treatise. First, it is ignored that there is a difference between calling a particular phenomenon ‘divine’ in virtue of a certain aspect or characteristic, and speaking about ‘the divine’ (to theion)ina general and abstract way.