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The tips of the cilia project through the epithelial lining fluid into a layer of mucus secreted from goblet cells 500mg keppra with mastercard symptoms zoloft. The cilia beat in an organized fashion to propel mucus along the airways to the throat purchase keppra on line amex symptoms you have diabetes, as discussed below (see Section 10 buy keppra canada medicine game. The mucus largely originates from the vagally innervated submucosal glands, with a smaller contribution from goblet cells. It consists of lipid-rich lipoproteins with the lipid composition dominated by phosphatidylcholine with a high dipalmitoyl content. About 85–90% of isolated surfactant is lipid of which 95% is phosphoglycerols with cholesterol as the main neutral component. Lung surfactant decreases the surface tension and thereby maintains the morphology and function critical for respiration. Thus with each intake of air, the lung receives a high burden of dusts, fumes, pollens, microbes and other contaminants. Efficient defense mechanisms have evolved to minimize the burden of foreign particles entering the airways, and clearing those that succeed in being deposited. All devices employed for drug delivery to the airways of the lung generate an aerosol. Therapeutic aerosols are two-phase colloidal systems in which the drug is contained in a dispersed phase which may be a liquid, solid or combination of the two, depending upon the formulation and method of aerosol generation (see Section 10. Clearly for successful therapy, the drug must be presented to the lung in aerosol droplets or particles that deposit in the appropriate lung region and in sufficient quantity to be effective. Once the aerosol particle or droplet has deposited in the lung, there are a number of further barriers which must be overcome before the drug exerts its pharmacological effect. The respiratory defense mechanisms of mucociliary clearance and phagocytosis by macrophages may act upon undissolved particles. Aerosol particle dissolution may be slow and the drug may then subsequently be subject to enzymatic degradation before it reaches its site of pharmacological action. The factors influencing the deposition and fate of pulmonary delivered drugs will be discussed in this section. Three principal deposition mechanisms operate within the lower respiratory tract (Figure 10. A particle with a large momentum may be unable to follow the changing direction of the inspired air as it passes the bifurcations and as a result will collide with the airway walls as it continues on its original course. The probability of inertial impaction will be dependent upon particle momentum (the product of mass and velocity), thus particles with larger diameters or higher densities and those travelling in airstreams of higher velocity will show greater impaction. Airflow velocities in the main bronchi are estimated to be 100-fold higher than in the terminal bronchioles and 1,000-fold higher than in the A region (Figure 10. It becomes increasingly important for particles that reach airways where the airstream velocity is relatively low, e. The fraction of particles depositing by this mechanism will be dependent upon the time the particles spend in these regions. Particles below this size are displaced by a random bombardment of gas molecules, which results in particle collision with the airway walls. The probability of particle deposition by diffusion increases as the particle size decreases. Brownian diffusion is also more prevalent in regions where airflow is very low or absent, e. Another method of deposition, that of interception, is of importance for fibers but is not of importance for drug delivery. As a consequence of these physical forces acting on the aerosol particle, its deposition in the lung is highly dependent on diameter.
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The captor might treat the captive who gives information somewhat like a sick individual in -207- order to avoid any notion that there is an element of choice involved in his behavior 500 mg keppra otc medicine 2015. The Magic Room Technique The trance induction itself might be initiated through the use of drugs since this would clearly convey to the prisoner that he is unable to prevent himself from responding order cheapest keppra medications memory loss. The second stage of "trance induction" might utilize a situation which the author has described elsewhere (53) as the "magic room buy 500 mg keppra free shipping schedule 8 medicines. An example of this would be the case of the prisoner who is given a hypnotic suggestion that his hand is growing warm. Or it might be suggested to the prisoner that when he wakes up a cigarette will taste bitter. Here again, he could be given a cigarette prepared to have a slight, but noticeably bitter, taste. In this manner, the idea could be conveyed to the subject that he is responding to the given suggestions. It can easily be seen how, with sufficient ingenuity, a large number of "suggestions" can be made to work by means unknown to the subject. The vital issue here would be that the subject became convinced that he was responding to suggestions and, for example, that the cigarettes really do not taste bitter, but that he experiences them as such because he cannot resist the suggesion. An unresolved question is the classification of the state in which a prisoner who collaborates under these circumstances finds himself. The crucial variable is the creation of a situation where the individual is legitimately able to give tip responsibility for his actions and therefore is permitted to avoid a threatening situation. It is probable that these manipulations occasionally would elicit some form of trance phenomenon, but the crucial aspect would be the situation, not the presence of a hypnotic state. Although the hypnotic situation as a tool of interrogation might yield information, the interrogator would have no more assurance of its accuracy than with the elicitation of information by hypnosis proper. The same cautions which have been stated with regard to hypnosis remain applicable here. Furthermore, for the success of the -208- technique the interrogator would have to act, in his relationship with the captive, as though the information must be correct. Consequently, the interrogator would be denied the use of techniques of cross examination upon which much of his success in deriving accurate information ordinarily depends. In constructing a pretense that the prisoner has lost responsibility for his behavior, he is also relieved of any responsibility for giving accurate and pertinent information. On the other hand, the interrogator could utilize to advantage any information he has that the subject does not know he has. For example, the informant could be given a hypnotic drug with appropriate verbal suggestions to talk about a given topic. Eventually enough of the drug would be given to cause a short period of unconsciousness. When the subject wakens, the interrogator could then read from his "notes" of the hypnotic interview the information presumably told him. It can readily be seen how this technical maneuver fits into the general concept of the "magic room," and how it would facilitate the elicitation of information in subsequent interviews. Although there is no direct evidence that such techniques have been or will be employed by interrogators nor any evaluation of their effectiveness, they represent simple extensions of hypnosis to traditional interrogation practices as described by Biderman (10). The effectiveness of the polygraph as a lie detection device is sometimes employed, apart from the use of the machine, to create a situation where the subject feels incapable of preventing himself from revealing the truth.
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How would you explain the presence of water in an ‘anlyte’ usually reacts with Karl Fischer reagent in a two- stage process? How would you assay the following medicinal compounds : (i) Prednisolone sodium phosphate (ii) Rifamycin sodium (iii) Sodium methyl hydroxybenzoate (iv) Triamcinolone acetonide generic keppra 500mg free shipping symptoms you need a root canal. Thus generic 250 mg keppra with amex asthma medications 7 letters, it is possible to carry out the assay of a number of formulations that contain corticosteroids by using triphenyltetrazolium chloride buy keppra australia treatment vaginal yeast infection. The said reaction is usually performed in an alkaline medium (tetramethylammonium hydroxide) between a temperature ranging between 30° to 35°C for a duration of 1 to 2 hours. The absorbance of the resulting formazan derivative producing a red product is usually measured around 484 nm. However, it is pertinent to mention here that certain steroids esterified at C-21 position, such as : hydrocortisone acetate, methylprednisolone acetate are duly hydrolyzed in the alkaline medium to give rise to the corresponding free C-21 hydroxy steroids and hence, may also be assayed by adopting the same procedure. Precautions : All these assays are to be carried out strictly in the absence of light and atmospheric oxygen to get optimum results. Describe the assay of the following steroidal drugs : (i) Hydrocortisone acetate (ii) Hydrocortisone (iii) Prednisolone (iv) Prednisone. Thus, most electrochemical cells invariably comprise of two electrodes, namely : (a) an Indicator Electrode—the voltage of which solely depends on the thermodynamic activity (i. Placing together of these two electrodes in a solution obviously gives rise to an electrochemical cell ; and consequently the voltage thus generated across the electrodes may be determined by connecting it either to a potentiometer or a millivoltmeter that has a sensitivity to measure ± 0. Under these experimental parameters when an extremely feeble current, of the order of less than 5 pA, is drawn from the electrodes, the e. In usual practice, the loss of electrons or reduction occurs from the prevailing chemical system at the cathode ; whereas the gain of electrons or oxidation takes place at the anode. Direct Potentiometry : The procedure adopted of employing a single measurement of electrode potential to determine the concentration of an ionic species in a solution is usually termed as direct potentiometry. Disadvantages : Direct potentiometry has the following two serious disadvantages namely : (a) From the Nernst Eq. Therefore, for an ion M+ (monovalent) a ten-time change in the electrode potential E by approximately 60 millivolts (mV) ; whereas for an ion M2+ (bivalent) a change in identical magnitude of activity shall bring forth alternation of E by about 30 mV. Hence, it is evident that to attain a desired accuracy and precision to the extent of 1% in the estimated value for the direct concentration using the technique of direct potentiometry, for M+ ion—the E should be measurable correctly within 0. Remedial Measures : There are two ways to eliminate the above anomaly, namely : (i) to replace the reference electrode with a concentration-cell i. As the name suggests, it is indeed a titrimetric method whereby a series of potentiometric measurements are recorded so as to locate the end-point as correctly as possible. In this procedure, it is particularly of more interest to know the exact changes in the observed electrode potential after each addition of the titrant, rather than a precise and accurate electrode potential often brought about by a given solution. Thus, in a way the impact due to liquid-junction-potential (E ) has been eliminated completely. It is pertinentj to mention here that in a potentiometric titration procedure the apparent change in cell e. The general principles which govern the above different types of reactions will be discussed briefly in the sections that follow : 16. Neutralization Reactions The accuracy and precision with which the end-point can be determined potentiometrically solely depends upon the quantum of change in the observed e. In this case, the first-break in the titration curve signifies that the stronger of the two acids i.